In an adult, there are 32 permanent teeth, in which tooth number 8 (also known as wisdom tooth) consists of 4 teeth in 4 corners in the same upper and lower jaw. Wisdom teeth usually erupt at the end of school age, but there are many cases when they erupt in adolescence.
The process of eruption of two upper wisdom teeth usually takes place normally. Particularly for the two lower wisdom teeth, because the lower jaw bone does not have enough space, the process of eruption is very complicated and the lower wisdom teeth often grow misaligned. The misalignment of wisdom teeth often causes many unpleasant complications.
In the case of a misaligned mandibular wisdom tooth, it reduces the amount of bone distal to the adjacent second molar. At the same time, because it is difficult to keep clean on the distal side of the second molar, the bacteria that cause gingivitis can penetrate a lot into the root surface, which will soon lead to severe periodontitis, which can even cause serious health problems. tooth loss.
In the position of wisdom teeth that are misaligned against the adjacent teeth, there is often a situation of food cramming and it is difficult to clean. From there, the bacteria that cause tooth decay can penetrate the adjacent tooth surface, so it is easy to cause decay of the adjacent tooth as well as itself.
Inflammation around the crown (gingivitis)
Periodontitis is an infection of the soft tissue around the crown of a wisdom tooth. The gums that cover the chewing surface of the growing wisdom teeth are the places that are often stuffed with food, creating an ideal place for bacteria. Periodontitis may be secondary to trauma from the maxillary wisdom tooth, whereby the soft tissue covering the chewing surface of the lower wisdom tooth may become traumatized and swollen.
Gingivitis causes a great deal of discomfort to the patient due to local pain, swelling, and sometimes fever. If the condition is more severe, the patient can also have a tight jaw, which can even lead to a serious infection of the face.
Tooth root loss
Sometimes, wisdom teeth that grow out of place or under pressure cause enough pressure on the adjacent roots to cause root resorption.
Tumors and cysts
When a wisdom tooth grows underground in the jawbone, its germ capsule can degenerate into a cyst. Cysts can reach very large sizes.
Similar to cyst formation, dental tumors can arise from the epithelium in the dental capsule.
Tumors and cysts form will weaken the jawbone, from which the jaw bone is at risk of fracture when experiencing trauma.
Wisdom teeth hidden in the lower jaw take up the normal jawbone because the bone fills it. As a result, the lower jaw bone can become weak and vulnerable.
Many studies have found that the eruption of wisdom teeth affects the arrangement of other teeth on the jaw. Especially for patients who have just received orthodontic treatment, the eruption of wisdom teeth can spoil the results of previous treatment. The National Institutes of Health recommends that wisdom teeth be extracted prior to orthodontic treatment.
In summary, wisdom teeth will be indicated to be extracted when the doctor finds that they are at risk of causing the above complications. In cases where wisdom teeth have grown straight on the jaw and cause no complications, they can be kept.